Log transformations are often recommended for skewed data, such as monetary measures or certain biological and demographic measures. Log transforming data usually has the effect of spreading out clumps of data and bringing together spread-out data. For example, below is a histogram of the areas of all 50 US states. It is skewed to the […]

# linear regression

## Hierarchical Linear Regression

This post is NOT about Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM; multilevel modeling). The hierarchical regression is model comparison of nested regression models. When do I want to perform hierarchical regression analysis? Hierarchical regression is a way to show if variables of your interest explain a statistically significant amount of variance in your Dependent Variable (DV) after […]

## Understanding Diagnostic Plots for Linear Regression Analysis

You ran a linear regression analysis and the stats software spit out a bunch of numbers. The results were significant (or not). You might think that you’re done with analysis. No, not yet. After running a regression analysis, you should check if the model works well for data. We can check if a model works […]

## Should I always transform my variables to make them normal?

When I first learned data analysis, I always checked normality for each variable and made sure they were normally distributed before running any analyses, such as t-test, ANOVA, or linear regression. I thought normal distribution of variables was the important assumption to proceed to analyses. That’s why stats textbooks show you how to draw histograms […]