Citing Data

Citing data is important in order to:

  • Give the data producer appropriate credit
  • Allow easier access to the data for re-purposing or re-use
  • Enable readers to verify your results

Citation Elements

  • Author(s)
  • Title
  • Year of publication: The date when the dataset was published or released (rather than the collection or coverage date)
  • Publisher: the data center/repository
  • Any applicable identifier (including edition or version)
  • Availability and access: URL or doi/doi link


  • Dataset
    OECD (2008), “Social Expenditures aggregates”, OECD Social Expenditure Statistics (database). doi: 10.1787/000530172303 (Accessed on 2008-12-02).
  • Table from a publication
    Smith, J. (2008), Figure 1.2. Broadband Penetration in OECD Countries, in OECD Communications Outlook 2008, OECD Publishing doi: 10.1787/000530172303
  • Updated Dataset
    Cavalieri, D., C. Parkinson, P. Gloersen, and H. J. Zwally. 1996, updated 2006. Sea ice concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I passive microwave data, March 2002–Sept. 2003. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. url: (Accessed on 2008-05-14).

Guidelines on Citing Data